The Krasnoyarsk Territory is the second largest region of Russia. It spreads from the shores of the Arctic Ocean to the mountains of Southern Siberia. The Krasnoyarsk Territory occupies 2,339.7 thousand sq. km, which is ten times more than the area of the UK or half of the European part of Russia. This unique Siberian region stretches for three thousand kilometres along the most water-rich Russian river — the Yenisei.
And the history of this region development and foundation of its capital city Krasnoyarsk is closely connected with it. 7 December 1934 is the date when the Krasnoyarsk Territory was celebrates its foundation. In 2005, Evenk and Taymyr autonomous districts were merged into the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Geographical centre of Russia is located on the shores of Lake Vivi in Evenkia. The Siberian region is unique and diverse. This is the land of eternal ice in Taimyr, the mighty Sayan Mountains, the mysterious Putorana Plateau, the rich taiga, the land of more than three hundred thousand lakes. The Yenisei meridian divides the region and the hole of Siberia into two parts, the river brings winds, opens and closes the way for ships and is essentially the main artery of life. But there is also another point of reference - the Arctic Circle. The lion's share of the Krasnoyarsk territory are the Northern lands. The number of people living there (indigenous peoples, in particular) is small. They live in their unique way, preserving original traditions and protecting the land of their ancestors.
The Krasnoyarsk Territory is the territory of development
The Krasnoyarsk Territory carefully preserves and supports authentic culture of indigenous peoples — the Evenks, Nenets, Nganasans. The population of this region is a large multinational family of Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, of all who consider themselves to be Siberians — strong-willed people, who are tough enough to handle the exploitation of the abundant natural resources of the region. There is no other territory in Russia with such a high natural-resource potential. The Krasnoyarsk Territory ranks first in Russia in terms of timber reserves (forests occupy 69 % of the territory).
The Olimpiada gold deposit located here is the second largest deposit of gold in Russia. The Krasnoyarsk Territory is one of the most promising areas for oil production in the country. In addition, the Krasnoyarsk Territory has the largest hydro power potential in Russia. Hydroelectric power stations on the Yenisei River are among world's largest plants: 20 of them are in operation and one is under construction. Natural resources, a powerful and viable industrial potential and competent management of the region — these are the components of its high investment attractiveness. The Krasnoyarsk Territory is in top ten among the subjects of the Russian Federation in terms of investment potential. The project of Lower Angara region comprehensive development, which includes the construction of the Boguchany Dam and the Boguchansky aluminium plant, is very important for the region's economy. The region keeps up with the times by introducing innovations in its economy.
The region ranks the 7th in Russia in terms of the level of innovation development according to monitoring. High-technology equipment and knowledge-based developments are being introduced in many industries. The scientific and educational potential of the region is being employed — Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, research institutes and design bureaus (in the fields of biophysics, chemistry, information-computer technologies, oil engineering, etc.), as well as 48 universities, including the Siberian Federal University. The Zheleznogorsk cluster became the main centre of innovation development in the nuclear and space sphere in the country. The project Krasnoyarsk Technopark is being implemented, new platforms of the region's innovation system are being launched. The Krasnoyarsk Territory has rightfully earned the title of a territory of large-scale projects, an advanced region, where the future of Siberia and the whole of Russia is shaped.
The Krasnoyarsk Territory is located mainly within Eastern Siberia region, in the Yenisei River basin. Left shore of the Yenisei is a lowland valley while the right shore is the Central Siberian Plateau with the height of 500-700 m above sea level. In the north, the Krasnoyarsk Territory is washed by the waters of Kara Sea and the Laptev Sea.
The territory stretches for almost 3,000 km from its northern lands to the mountains of Southern Siberia. Geographical centre of Russia is located in the Krasnoyarsk territory in the vicinity of Lake Vivi in Evenkia. And also Cape Chelyuskin, the extreme northern point of mainland Russia and all of Asia, lies here. The Krasnoyarsk Territory includes the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, the islands of Nordenscheld, Vilkitsky, Sibiryakov, Dikson, and others.
The Krasnoyarsk Territory has a diverse relief. Over a large part of the northern area, the Yenisei River maid a valley at the junction of two tectonic structures. From the right shore to the valley of the river, the Central Siberian Plateau and the Yenisei Ridge descend, composed of the ancient rocks. On the left shore of the river the West Siberian Lowland is located, which merges with the vast Yenisei-Khatanga Lowland in the north, which occupies part of the Taimyr Peninsula. Mountains and intermountain areas of the Altai-Sayan highlands occupy the south of the region. The Central Siberian Plateau is composed of sandstone, limestone, shale, coal, which in many places are covered with magmatic outpourings (traps). In the north western part of the plateau, the Putorana plateau rises, which in some places goes higher than 1600 m, and the highest point — Mount Kamen — is 1701 m high.
On the left shore of the Yenisei, the eastern part of the West Siberian Lowland is located. More than once it was covered with glaciers, therefore the relief is mostly low land and hilly with many lakes, swamps and rivers.
The Central Siberian Lowland occupies most of the Taimyr Peninsula. Hills and ridges up to 12 m high stretch far away. In the north of the peninsula from the Yenisei Gulf to the Laptev Sea, the low mountains of Byrranga extend, the average height of which is 400 to 600 m.
In the southern part of the region, the ridges of the East and West Sayans and Kuznetsk Alatau rise. At the foot of the ridges, the famous Minusinsk Basin lies, where climatic conditions are favourable. The East Sayan begins to the west of Krasnoyarsk and runs in the south-east to the mountains of Transbaikal. This vast mountainous region comprises many mountain ridges, hollows and high plateaus. There are several flat-topped ridges that are up to 900 m high called "Belogorye" (white mountains) — Manskoye, Kanskoye, Pezinsky, and others. The Russian pioneers came up with the name Belogorye — in the XVII century, they used it to describe mountains covered with snow in summer time. There are many carstic-speleological areas in the mountains of the East Sayan. As of today, the largest number of caves in the country (about 150) is found in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, among them — the longest cave of Russia, Bolshaya Oreshnaya, with a length of over 50 km.
The West Sayan stretches for over 650 km on the southern border of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. It includes many ridges — Ergaki, Sayansky, Kurtushibinsky, Tazarama, Dzhebashsky, Aradansky, etc.), and ancient planation surfaces. The Kuznetsk Alatau stretches in the south-west, separating the Minusinsk hollow from the Kuznetsk hollow.